Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) interface the physical environment, human environment together with the information world. CPS enable the physical world to merge with the virtual leading to an Internet of things, data and services. One example of CPS is an intelligent manufacturing line, where the machine can perform many work processes by communicating with the components. Sensor virtualization plays a major roles when it comes to applications of cyber physical systems. So far there were no commercial systems for manufacturing using sensor virtualisation for CPS. These have been at present at prototyping and research stage mainly in education and healthcare fields. The European Union is already investing around 300 Million Euro per year for 10 years to pursue “world leadership” through advanced strategic research and technology development related to CPS (include 170 Million Euro per year in public funds and 130 Million Euro per year in private funds. Cyber-Physical Systems Laboratory (CPSL) at Washington University in St. Louis performs cutting-edge research on real-time systems, wireless sensor networks, embedded systems and cyber-physical systems that cross-cut computing, networking and other engineering disciplines. Cyber-physical systems are rapidly becoming critical to the business success of many companies and the mission success of many government agencies. In transportation (intelligent vehicles and traffic control, intelligent structures and pavements), manufacturing (smart production equipment, processes, automation, control, and networks; new product design), telecommunications, consumer electronics, and health and medical equipment (body area networks and assistive systems), and intelligent infrastructure (smart utility grids and smart buildings/ structures) the value share of electronics, computing, communications, sensing, and actuation is expected to exceed 50% of the cost by the end of the decade. One of the major issues for CPS application is reliability, safety and security. For CPS to be reliable, safe, and secure, systems must be able to adapt to the physical environment and withstand both cyber and physical attacks while maintaining data integrity and robustness.
The barriers for market applicability of CPS are:
One central aspect to process manufacturing data is an interface between the hardware sensors and software components. Due to the high amount of various sensors from different manufacturing assets delivering heterogeneous data, the challenge will be to abstract the sensors and to virtualise it for other CREMA components. This component shall process the data, which is delivered by the manufacturing assets in a harmonised way. Users request data invisibly from the Cloud-based RAID Infrastructure and the Big Data, Knowledge and Analytics component in order to view it on the CREMA Dashboard. CPS allows sensor data from manufacturing assets to be accessible by the user. In terms of this data, the user is able to react and interact. To solve this issue, it is needed to take the following steps:
The CPS has to be integrated to access the sensor sources to process the data in a standardised way. A data gateway will be implemented which marshals the data of the sensor sources to a format that can be used within CREMA. Where applicable, these will use existing approaches to standardise access to various heterogeneous sensor data, e.g. as recommended by the W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group. The data can then be accessed directly or via the Big Data, Knowledge and Analytics component or the Cloud-based RAID Infrastructure. In the field of manufacturing, there are many different sensors, which measure various data. One task is to analyse the common grounds of the various sensors, categorise and unify them, and to build an appropriate sensor abstraction layer. After the sensor abstraction is completed, the sensor sources are ready for virtualisation. Virtualisation is responsible for representing the sensor source in CREMA and allows the user’s processes to have control over the sensor. By providing a CPS and sensor abstraction and interoperability framework, CREMA allows the envisioned end-to-end integration of ICT systems across the complete supply chain. CPS will also be interfaced as actors in order to control the manufacturing process. This allows influencing and actively controlling real-world manufacturing processes and therefore adapting them if necessary.
Cyber-Physical Systems Laboratory (CPSL) at Washington University in St. Louis http://www.wustl.edu/
The vision of the project is to provide a methodology that allows for complex and dynamic CPSs to meet real-world requirements in an efficient and robust way through the formal synthesis of control software. The research is developing a formal framework for correct-by-construction control software synthesis for highly dynamic CPSs with broad applications to automotive safety systems, prostheses, exoskeletons, aerospace systems, manufacturing, and legged robotics.The design methodology developed here will improve the competitiveness of segments of industry that require a tight integration between hardware and highly advanced control software such as: automotive (dynamic stability and control), aerospace (UAVs), medical (prosthetics, orthotics, and exoskeleton design) and robotics (legged locomotion). To enhance the impact of these efforts, the PIs are developing interdisciplinary teaching materials to be made freely available and disseminating their work to a broad audience.